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  1. Politics and Participation Abstract Political participation is the voluntary actions undertaken by the masses of people to influence the public's policy whether directly or indirectly through the choices of those who decide on policy. Examples of this include participating in elections, supporting in a political campaign, giving money to a cause or a candidate and contacting officials, petitioning or protesting, as well as cooperating with others on questions. Certain types of activities are organized into ways of participation. A large amount of cross-country data has shown that people with higher education and wealth are more active than those who are less fortunate however this connection is less pronounced in countries that have strong political parties, or where other political organisations provide other sources. The research associated with research on the Civic Voluntarism Model (CVM) has proven that people are able to transfer their political abilities they learn through organizations. The CVM as well as other studies have also shown that people are more involved in response to recruiting or mobilization. (Both terms refer to the efforts of one individual to boost the activities of an additional.) This Political Action project has shown that people have widened their "repertory of political action" to include protest as well as traditional participation. Participation patterns in dictatorships, as well as those in less developed countries are not the only issues, but they are based on these general principles. Sexism Political Representation Participation in politics and recognition is a fundamental element for gender equality. In democratic nations women have ascended to an official equality with males in a variety of areas. Women have the right to vote, participate in elections, as well as contest for political positions. But, women are still underrepresented in both national and local assemblies. Female leaders of government remain a rare thing and, in 2005, only two countries across the globe did women comprise half of the Cabinet (Sweden as well as Spain). A critique from a liberal perspective of the dearth of women in government asserts that the growth of women in the upper levels of power is an equality of opportunity issue. The long history of the females being excluded from politics is similar to the issue as the obstacles faced by women who seek progress within the realms in the realm of power and control. A libertarian critique of sexism defies every attempt to see the issue of underrepresentation different ways than an equality of job opportunity. The liberal tradition has always maintained that the procedures of taking political decisions should be able to maintain a certain autonomy from the viewpoint of private, sectarian interests. The process of making political decisions is considered as an appropriate subject that requires independent judgment guided with regard to the national interests of the state in general. Thus, for traditional liberalism, the character of the political representative should from the viewpoint of the constituents, to be regarded as non-essential. Contrary to this liberal interpretation of the issue of underrepresentation that is seen as an issue of equal opportunity There has been an increasing trend to look at the issue in broader terms as a issue that is important to the overall health and vitality of democratic liberal institutions. Women's interests are, according to the argument, were not considered and ignored by the political institutions that have the most important decision-making roles have been exclusively performed by males. According to this perspective that the dominance of decisions in the political process by males is thought as having led to an insidious disregard for the government's responsibility to exercise its power for the benefit of the society in general. Particularly the argument is that the history of male-dominated politics has altered the scope of questions that are deemed to be politically important with respect to narrow, sectarian ways - as if they were deemed as reflecting the accumulated priorities and opinions of a specific group of men who are privileged. The 20th century witnessed the gradual shift of many concerns, like housing and welfare as well as sexual relations, which were previously considered social issues, to the realm of politics. The current climate of economic rationality that is currently affecting most Western democracies has revealed to some that this recent expansion of the range of politically relevant issues. Women, as it was argued are the only ones with a stake in actively seeking to stop this relapse to a narrow view of what is considered to be the political. Considered to be the most privileged people who benefit from a wider view of issues that are politically important that has jurisdiction over previously social issues (women are, as an instance gained through the introduction of laws intended to ban the use of violence in marriage) Women are the central actors in these fervent struggle that is currently taking place in several liberal democratic countries on the issue of character and scope of politics. The low representation of women in the parliamentary system is seen not just as a matter of equal opportunities, but just in relation to the alleged unique role of women to protect wide-ranging views of the sphere of political activity and a claim has been presented that women could alter the way that the political decision-making process. This argument is while the inclusion of women in government could not have a significant impact on the politics of our time and the political process, bringing women into the process of decisions in sufficient numbers could result in significant changes in the way that the political decision-making process. It is believed that women, as a whole may bring a distinct way of arguing to the political process, one which is less combative and more receptive to strength of the argument that is stronger and less influenced by the whims of individual interests. Many major parties in liberal democratic nations (including that of the national Australian Labour Party, the British Labour Party, and the Swedish Social Democrats) have implemented quota systems to correct the gender gap in elected members of their national legislatures.